This page is about harnessing the power that is available in your Church and I have included few large churches in America who are listed on the first page of Google with my manuscript www.revelationyoucanunderstand.com and it is true Bible Revelation you can understand using common sense and the Bible itself can be better understood using common sense. So now I have isolated below how to harness power in your Church.
This is what I suggest to you as the Servant of the living God and you can get to know me in
I also have
my own Personal site
If you are a leader, Pastor, Minister or other what I suggest is encourage you people, membership to foster a close walk with Jesus Christ. That is to have a serious time put aside regularly.
For me for a lot of years I go to bed, I wake up about 3 hours later and then I have my time with Jesus . Sometimes my time can be at 2 am, 3am, 1am etc and it could be 1 hour, the usual time for me is one and a half hour I do a lot of memory work and I spend time in the Bible revising and hunting down new insights. I absolutely love my time with Jesus and this time is precious a time I am going into the very throne of God. It has become an amazing time. It is unusual for me to miss a morning I look forward to the time. I also run a Diary.
If you are a leader imagine what would happen if 20,000 people start developing a wonderful walk, work with God, Jesus at home and imagine the ideas, God would give your people. and I think your Church would be on fire to serve Jesus and your 20,000 the power in your ministry is almost frightening.
Your Church will explode in all areas.
So spend time at each worship period encouraging people to build up their time with Jesus at home.
You will be amazed with the results. Do the test and be amazed. You are dealing with a living God, Jesus who wants all people to hear the wonderful Good News and to come to him and the Harvest is ready it is just a matter of running.
Run! Run! Run! Make sure you follow God, Jesus voice and obey God’s Voice.
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I will now address a few of the large Churches in America. You can understand how to harness power in your Church. So you have 40, 000 members such as Lakewood Church, what is wrong with Lakewood having 80, 000. It can happen.
This Video God is able, probably is the most important part of your journey with God and Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit who lives in your heart and empowers you or you may not be empowered. So God, Jesus, Holy spirit live in you and gives you whatever you need to do God’s work and note you are also looked after while you are on this earth, finally God takes you home.
Internet, WEB, and the ability to live here in Australia and to live in Deepwater which only has 130 houses is amazing. But great. I thank the Denominations that have WEB sites, because it means I can visit any where in the world. As I visit again I will make a note on this page.
I have been following New Life Church www.newlifechurch.org since they came my attention with trials that came their way and since the New life Church has regular visits from me. It is good the sermons are there to listen. since I took an interest in Revelation I have been looking for information New Life and understanding Revelation which is designed to encourage Christians. I am sure Revelation is there somewhere so I have my Revelation you can Understand and will look at what New Life thinks about the Bible Revelation. I thank you New Life for having a user friendly WEB Site. I am sure there are thousands upon thousands of genuine Christians in New Life Church. My understanding of Revelation is easy to follow so I hope many people in New Life to read this manuscript you are supporting my work in preaching the Gospel. I know that Brady Boyd the Senior Minister and I followed Brady Boyd’s induction and how things have continued honoring God in such a large Denomination and looking after the members of New Life in Colorado Springs. Colorado Springs has been Blessed the New Life exists in the Community. New life church with the Bible and Bible Revelation
If you attend New life Church and you are a Pastor, Leader, Teacher, Vicar, Father, Minister, Lay Leader you can help your people to understand the Bible. You can understand using common sense and the Bible itself can be better understood using common sense. So now I have isolated below how to harness power in your Church.revelation
Hendrik is a friend and he loves Jesus Christ a wonderful Savior, Saviour.
I was pretty impressed to see the architecture of the building and interior of the Crystal Cathedral Church. I am enthused when I see tens of thousands go to a church such as the Crystal Cathedral Church. 12141 Lewis St Garden Grove . I though the concept of the Hour of Power is terrific and I know there are thousands of occasions when the blood of Jesus for remission of sins is discussed.
Once again I thank the Crystal Cathedral Church has a WEB Site so I can visit many times and see what is happening. I hunt around the WEB Site to see teaching and I wonder about Revelation the last book in the Bible. All Christians should be encouraged when they read Revelation and people who are not Christians, non Christians, realize the need to come to Jesus, Revelation is a good book for teaching people that God has a plan. For that reason I have prepared a manuscript called Revelation you can Understand a Layman’s interpretation. Revelation has an amazing unity, Seven Churches, Seven Seals, Seven Trumpets, Seven Plagues, Harlot, Babylon, Marriage of the Lamb, New Heaven and Earth. Wow! Hendrik’s Revelation that you can understand a layman’s interpretation will excite you. Crystal Cathedral Church with theBible Revelation
If you attend Crystal Cathedral Church and you are a Pastor, Leader, Teacher, Vicar, Father, Minister, Lay Leader you can help your people to understand the Bible.. You can understand using common sense and the Bible itself can be better understood using common sense. So now I have isolated below how to harness power in your Church. bible and Revelation
I happen to be travelling around Sydney and came upon Hillsong Church at Castle Hill I did not go into the church but lucky for me Hillsong Church has a WEB site. My interest of course is a manuscript called Revelation you can understand so I always try to find out what Ministers, Pastors, Elders, Congregations think about Revelation, an important book in the Bible which is designed to encourage Christians, Motivate Christians, For Ministers, Elders, Officers of the church such as Hillsong to work harder and be a conqueror. We all must conquer, overcome. I am sure people in Hillsong would like a manuscript that Revelation you can undestand is about. The unity of the book is amazing, The grouping of the plagues, trumpets, sealings has a unity that causes you to gasp in awe. Hillsong, Church with the Bible and Revelation
If you attend Hillsong Church NSW Australia and you are a Pastor, Leader, Teacher, Vicar, Father, Minister, Lay Leader you can help your people to understand the Bible. . You can understand using common sense and the Bible itself can be better understood using common sense. So now I have isolated below how to harness power in your Church
You can support my work. I live a long way away from most of the world. The WEB has brought us together. Hendrik is clearly a friend so support him. Hendrik is not a False Prophet.
If you attend Lakewood and you are a Pastor, Leader, Teacher, Vicar, Father, Minister, Lay Leader you can help your people to understand the Bible. .You can understand using common sense and the Bible itself can be better understood using common sense. So now I have isolated below how to harness power in your Church
Lakewood Church is an inspiration. Congregation in Lakewood would have an interest in the Bibles Revelation because Revelation is about encouraging Christian’s to conquer, overcome, get the job done in the power of Jesus Christ. Tens thousands of people in Lakewood Church Houston would be great Christians and over the years many people who attend this great Church Lakewood Houston would also become people who discover, God, his son Jesus Christ, how he is the Christ, died on the cross of Calvary for mankind’s sin, so people can come to Jesus and have their sins forgiven and become a child of God. As a Christian it is true Jesus looks after you, he he wants you to have a full life. health, financial, relationships, The best is what he wants for you and after you finish your work on the earth he will take you to Heaven. So I hope, Ministers, Elders, Leaders, Group Leaders, Congregation, do have a look at Hendrik’s manuscript about, Heaven, God, Jesus, Son of Man, Babylon, Harlot, Angels, Seals, Seven Seals, Seven Trumpets, Seven Plagues, Babylon falls, Harlot is judged, the Marriage Feast, Hell, Hades, Pit. There is so much in Revelation that my manuscripts about Revelation can be understood. Support Hendrik he is a friend Lakewood Church with the Bible and Revelation
Lakewood Church: Discover the Champion in You – Joel Osteen, Pastor – Houston
- A second reminder here if you attend Lakewood and you are a Pastor, Leader, Teacher, Vicar, Father, Minister, Lay Leader you can help your people to understand the Bible. .You can understand using common sense and the Bible itself can be better understood using common sense. So now I have isolated below how to harness power in your Church
Summary of Churches: where have I visited Online, WEB, Internet, Lakewood Church Houston, America, USA, Also Hillsong Church Castle Hill Sydney Australia, I visited The Crystal Cathedral Church, located in Garden Grove, California. USA America. I spent a fair bit of time with New Life in Colorado Springs. Colorado Springs. USA America
I was pretty impressed to see the architecture of the building and interior of the Second Baptist Church I am enthused when I see tens of thousands go to a church such as the Second Baptist Church in Houston and I liked the Woodway Worship Center. I thought the concept of an inspiring center of worship is terrific and I know there are thousands of occasions when the blood of Jesus for remission of sins is discussed.
Once again I thank the Second Baptist Church Houston, a Church that has a WEB Site so I can visit many times and see what is happening. I hunt around the WEB Site to see teaching and I wonder about Revelation the last book in the Bible. All Christians should be encouraged when they read Revelation and people who are not Christians, non Christians, realize the need to come to Jesus, Revelation is a good book for teaching people that God has a plan. For that reason I have prepared a manuscript called Revelation you can Understand a Layman’s interpretation. Revelation has an amazing unity, Seven Churches, Seven Seals, Seven Trumpets, Seven Plagues, Harlot, Babylon, Marriage of the Lamb, New Heaven and Earth. Wow! Hendrik’s Revelation that you can understand a layman’s interpretation will excite you. Woodway Worship Center. 19449 Katy Freeway Houston, Texas 77094 713.465.3408
Second Baptist Church Houston with the Bible and Revelation
If you attend Second Baptist Church and you are a Pastor, Leader, Teacher, Vicar, Father, Minister, Lay Leader you can help your people to understand the Bible. . You can understand using common sense and the Bible itself can be better understood using common sense. So now I have isolated below how to harness power in your Church
Second Baptist Church in Houston, TX is a multi-site church. Dr. Ed Young is senior pastor.
I was pretty impressed to see the interior of the North Point Community Church Alpharetta I am enthused when I see tens of thousands go to a church such as the North Point Community Church Alpharetta and I liked the the concept of a North Point Community Church Alpharettan WEB Site inspiring I know there are thousands of occasions when the blood of Jesus for remission of sins is discussed.
Once again I thank the North Point Community Church Alpharetta that has a WEB Site so I can visit many times and see what is happening. I hunt around the WEB Site to see teaching and I wonder about Revelation the last book in the Bible. All Christians should be encouraged when they read Revelation and people who are not Christians, non Christians, realize the need to come to Jesus, Revelation, Bible is a good book for teaching people that God has a plan. For that reason I have prepared a manuscript called Revelation you can Understand a Layman’s interpretation. Revelation has an amazing unity, Seven Churches, Seven Seals, Seven Trumpets, Seven Plagues, Harlot, Babylon, Marriage of the Lamb, New Heaven and Earth. Wow! Hendrik’s Revelation that you can understand a layman’s interpretation will excite you. North Point Community Church Alpharetta. USA with the Bible and RevelationIf you attend North Point Community Church and you are a Pastor, Leader, Teacher, Vicar, Father, Minister, Lay Leader you can help your people to understand the Bible.. You can understand using common sense and the Bible itself can be better understood using common sense. So now I have isolated below how to harness power in your Church
North Point Community Church is located in Alpharetta, Georgia, at 4350 North Point Parkway. We are right in the middle of an incredible community of people …
I was pretty impressed to see the interior of the Willow Creek Community Church South Barrington. I am enthused when I see tens of thousands go to a church such as the Willow Creek Community Church South Barrington and I liked the the concept of a Willow Creek Community Church WEB Site inspiring I know there are thousands of occasions when the blood of Jesus for remission of sins is discussed.
Once again I thank the Willow Creek Community Church South Barrington that has a WEB Site so I can visit many times and see what is happening. I hunt around the WEB Site to see teaching and I wonder about Revelation the last book in the Bible. All Christians should be encouraged when they read Revelation and people who are not Christians, non Christians, realize the need to come to Jesus, Revelation, Bible is a good book for teaching people that God has a plan. For that reason I have prepared a manuscript called Revelation you can Understand a Layman’s interpretation. Revelation has an amazing unity, Seven Churches, Seven Seals, Seven Trumpets, Seven Plagues, Harlot, Babylon, Marriage of the Lamb, New Heaven and Earth. Wow! Hendrik’s Revelation that you can understand a layman’s interpretation will excite you. Willow Creek Community church South Barrington USA with the Bible and Revelation
If you attend Willow Creek Community church and you are a Pastor, Leader, Teacher, Vicar, Father, Minister, Lay Leader you can help your people to understand the Bible. . If you attend You can understand using common sense and the Bible itself can be better understood using common sense. So now I have isolated below how to harness power in your Church
If you are a leader in your Church, maybe your title is Layman Leader, Elder, Pastor, Associate Pastor, Reverent, Vicar, Father, Rabbi, Teacher, Shepherd, Nun, Novice, Monk, counsellor, Archdeacon, Deacon, Bishop, Patriarch, Chaplain, Abbot, Religious Brother, Cardinal, Presbyter, Sultan, Sharif, There is a list below of a lot of positions in Organisation some are Christian and some others maybe religious but not our Christian Kingdom of God.
I have always stated in www.youmustrepent.com Videos. If you are in a Church that follows our Bible and we belong to one of the Main Denominations, such as Baptist and more
It does not matter where you live Anglican, Community Church, Assemblies of God, Australian Australian Churches, New Life Apolostic Church, Christian Life Centre Glen Innes, Inverell Christian Life Centre, Christian Fellowship, Harvest Christian Centre, Baptist Church, Calvary Christian Centre Calvary Life Assemblies, Pentecostal, Catholic Church, Christian City Church, Christian Life Centre, Christian Outreach Centre, Church of Jesus Christ, Latter Day Saints, Churches of Christ, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Lutheran Church, Nazareth House Congregation, New Life Christian Fellowship, Presbyterian Church, St Mary’s Catholic Cathedral, Salvation Army, Seventh Day Adventist Church. Trinity Church Tamworth, Uniting Church of Australia.
This information came from
I will not explain below because once again it is clear and from your Bible.
As you know there are a lot of Denominations who say the Church as a Denomination of different flavours all are brethren, that is we are all equal and yet in the world without a structure in a organisation nothing happens unless there are leaders who are trained to help motivate people to do things for their church.
If a church were to place an ad in a newspaper inviting applications for church leadership positions, what might it include? From visiting the board meetings of almost any modern church one might get the impression that successful businessmen make the best elders–after all, management is management. On the other hand, books that deal with leadership training often highlight the sense of calling, dependence on God and perseverance that we see in the great biblical characters–Moses, Jeremiah, Paul–to provide a model. Of course, these figures were powerful leaders, and there is much to be learned about leadership from them. But if the question is “Who is fit to lead in the church?” and this decision falls to other church leaders, then the place to begin is with the kind of concerns raised in 1 Timothy 3:1-13.
At this point in the letter, the tone changes. What had been a discussion of what the church and certain groups in the church ought to do becomes a discussion of what leaders in the church ought to be. The moral lapse and defection of some of this church’s leaders undoubtedly had left the fellowship in a state of instability. And the internal disruption was likely to be met by severe criticism from unbelievers. For these reasons the two lists included at this point describe the necessary qualifications for the offices of the overseer and deacon. In each case the focal point is the candidate’s reputation among believers and unbelievers, which is to be computed on the basis of proven moral character and maturity. Duties are hardly mentioned. The standard, above reproach (3:2) or blameless (3:10), is extremely high, but not out of proportion to the importance of the church’s mission in the world (3:15-16), which always hangs in the balance.
Who were the overseers and deacons? The term translated overseer in the NIV was first used outside the church to refer to supervisors of various sorts. As a description of one level of church leadership, it appears in Acts 20:28 and, again alongside “deacons,” in Philippians 1:1. To judge from the account of Paul’s farewell meeting with the elders (presbyters; compare 1 Tim 5:17) of Ephesus (Acts 20:17-38) and the instructions in Titus 1:6-7, the terms “overseer” and “elder” referred to the same office. Moreover, church leaders alluded to in Romans 12:8 (“leadership,” “govern”) and 1 Corinthians 12:28 (“those with gifts of administration”) as well as in Ephesians 4:11, “pastors and teachers,” would probably hold this office. Among the duties assigned to this office (though perhaps not exclusively) were preaching and teaching and generally leading or managing the church.
The office of deacons (which may have included women; see below on 3:11) probably emerged as the church grew in size and the demands on the leadership required that certain functions be delegated. The table-waiting deacons of Acts 6:1-6 may have been prototypical of the office referred to here and in Philippians 1:1. Teaching and ruling are not specifically mentioned in connection with deacons; they were apparently subordinate to the overseers and generally charged with seeing to the fellowship’s practical needs. Nevertheless, some deacons would have been active in preaching the gospel (Stephen and Philip show how widely the preaching ministry extended).Overseers: A Reputation Above Reproach (3:1-7)
The second of Paul’s “trustworthy sayings” (see 1:15) promotes the office of the overseer as a noble task. Perhaps the problems in Ephesus had led some to regard the offices with suspicion and disrespect. If so, a reminder of the honor and importance traditionally attached to the position might restore some of that respect and instill confidence in carefully chosen leaders. But as the following guidelines imply, the viability of the office is closely linked to the one seeking to hold it. For us today, whose too-full schedules lead us rather to disregard offices in the church, the same reminder could well be taken as an exhortation to availability.
The code that follows in verses 2-7 gives guidelines for measuring a candidate’s reputation, which must be above reproach. This requirement, one word in the original Greek, is the only one in the code that requires further definition. The items that follow give an idea of the directions that “irreproachability” should move in. Generally, the focus is on observable conduct. Most of the items of behavior that follow require little explanation. The reference to the overseer’s marriage, however, is an exception.
Although we might cringe at the thought, most of us would probably admit that one’s marriage sheds a good deal of light on one’s character. Paul apparently held similar feelings. But the meaning of the condition that the overseer be the husband of but one wife (literally, a “one-woman man”) continues to provoke discussion, and some of the interpretations bear a closer look.
1. The qualification prohibits polygamists from holding this office. However, this is not likely to have been Paul’s intention. Monogamy was by far the norm of that day. Polygamy was generally regarded as abhorrent and did not need to be mentioned in such a list.
2. The qualification excludes those who have remarried after the death of a spouse. This is an equally unlikely suggestion. Remaining single, particularly in the case of widows, was often commended, but Paul seems to have allowed and even to have encouraged the remarriage of the surviving partner (1 Cor 7:39-40; 1 Tim 5:14).
3. The qualification specifically rules out those who have remarried after divorce. But even granting a fairly strong stand in the New Testament on the issue of divorce, exceptions to the rule prohibiting remarriage were made in the case of adultery (Mt 5:32; 19:9) and perhaps in the case of desertion by the unbelieving mate (1 Cor 7:15). Furthermore, there is nothing to exclude from consideration those who fall into this “exceptional” category (apart from this uncertain phrase, for which in any case there is no first-century evidence of its use in connection with divorce).
4. The qualification is a requirement of faithfulness in marriage. Given the context, this interpretation seems more plausible. Actually, the tone of the phrase is positive rather than prohibitive, which suggests a nuance of meaning different from the first three positions. The flow of thought in the list moves from personal to church life, from domestic to official functions. Implicit in this movement is an important axiom: what one does or is in one’s private life has consequences for the church. It follows that within Paul’s holistic outlook, which brings together personal and domestic qualities, it is far more likely that he would stress fidelity in marriage. So the point of the phrase is probably not how often one can be married, nor precisely what constitutes a legitimate marriage (that the marriage of the candidate is legitimate is assumed), but rather how one conducts oneself in one’s marriage.
Without a break in the sentence, Paul inserts several personal qualities to amplify the meaning of above reproach. The candidate must be temperate, or better “sober,” which taken figuratively, as probably intended here (in view of the prohibition of drunkenness in v. 3), means to be clear-headed or vigilant. Vigilance is the opposite of drunkenness or fuzzy thinking, which in this context has the life of faith in view. Christians are to guard against spiritual laziness and avoid habits that lull one to sleep (things and activities that draw us away from God).
Self-controlled, next on the list, is a quality Paul refers to frequently in the Pastorals as a basic element of the observable Christian life (2:9, 15; 2 Tim 1:7; Tit 2:2, 4, 5, 6). As a fundamental aspect of the new existence in Christ (Tit 2:12), it is the ability to take charge of the mind, and Christians have this possibility opened to them. This allows control over impulses (to overindulge the physical appetites, to think wrong thoughts about others and ourselves) which without control would drive us to excessive behavior.
Respectable refers to observable behavior that corresponds to inner self-control. It is behavior of all kinds (2:9) marked by self-discipline, order and balance. Paul’s use of this traditional quality, especially in connection with self-control, sets before us the possibility and challenge of developing a life in which inner motivation and outer action achieve a harmonious balance. The ancients viewed inner control as the strength of life and outer balance as the beauty of life.
But Paul was not simply lauding traditional values that, some two thousand years later, are of no use to us. On the one hand, vigilance, self-control, respectability, and the balance of inner and outer life that Paul envisions are realities available to us in the Spirit. They are also necessities. Without vigilance (spiritual awareness and discernment) we will not exercise self-control. Without self-control we will indulge ourselves freely according to the advice of the world around us instead of setting the limits that produce godly balance.
Hospitality was a virtue also widely heralded in Greco-Roman culture. Within the church, however, the practice of hospitality was imperative. Some Christians had been forced out of their homelands by persecution or found it increasingly difficult to make a living. And this was always a prospect for Christians in the Roman Empire. The practical and sacrificial sharing of one’s home and minimal resources might mean survival for someone. The New Testament enjoins all believers to practice hospitality (Rom 12:13; 1 Pet 4:9), but the Pastorals mention it only in connection with those who would serve (5:10; Tit 1:8), who are then to be examples.
Able to teach relates more directly to the ministry connected with the office of overseer. In the present context of heresy, this qualification would necessarily include teaching and preaching (5:17; 2 Tim 2:1) and refuting the heresy (2 Tim 2:24; Tit 1:9). In view of the apparent division of labor among the elders alluded to in 5:17, perhaps this qualification is typical and the ability to teach need not be equally in evidence in each candidate (compare Rom 12:6-8).
As the list continues to probe the background of the candidate for leadership, it prohibits four characteristics of behavior. Tendencies toward drunkenness and violence (Tit 1:7) are clearly reasons for rejection. The church cannot afford to be led by those who allow themselves to be controlled by intoxicating substances (which enslave the user and inhibit decisive thinking) or emotions. But evidence of these traits in any believer calls for immediate action. They are signs of a loss of control. Maturity and strength are to exhibit themselves instead in gentleness, as they did in Christ (2 Cor 10:1).
At the same time, the overseer must not be quarrelsome. This tendency betrays an inability to get along with and accept the views of others, and perhaps deeper personality flaws as well. The false teachers in Ephesus were known for their quarrels (1:5; 6:4-5). A leader prone to this weakness will produce discord instead of harmony. But a leader, or any Christian for that matter, who promotes peace among people will create and preserve the relationships necessary for building a unified church.
Then, the overseer must not be a lover of money. This means the candidate’s attitude toward material wealth ought to be one of healthy detachment, but certainly not irresponsibility. Such a leader can be a model of generosity and simplicity of lifestyle because of the knowledge that whatever one’s economic status might be, all that one has belongs to God and so must be looked after faithfully before him (6:17-19). But this applies to every believer, and the issue raised by this characteristic is one we all ought to face. Many of us are capable of generating a comfortable income. How much is enough? How can we know if we have begun to put money and material things before God? What does responsibility mean in this area of our lives? These are hard questions, the kind we usually prefer not to ask. The very fact that these questions make us uncomfortable proves the relevance for us of Paul’s word to overseers. All we can do here is suggest a beginning. Our attitudes and motivations where money and acquiring things are concerned must be brought before God for evaluation. God’s Word and not the values of the society in which we live must be allowed to shape and correct our thinking and behavior in this area (Mt 6:19-24; 2 Cor 8–9; 1 Tim 6:5-10, 17-19).
The profile of the ideal candidate concludes with three conditions, each accompanied by a statement of rationale (vv. 4-6). First, Paul cites proficient management of the household (NIV family) as a prerequisite of church leadership (vv. 4-5). Indeed, if one’s marriage hints at fitness for leading a church (3:2), then the effectiveness of one’s attempts to lead and provide order in a home speaks volumes. Paul has in mind the typical householder of Greco-Roman society, who ordinarily would have been a citizen. Besides the male head of the house, household members included the wife, children and, depending on the economic status of the householder, slaves. In fact, some Christian householders in Ephesus owned slaves (6:2). The dwellings ranged from the spacious houses of the upper-class householder to the apartments (which varied in size) of middle- and lower-income households. Normally the authority structure of the household was strictly patriarchal, and at each level subordination to the householder was expected. Anything less than this kind of obedience to the householder was taken as a sign of disorder and even political subversion, for the stability of the household was regarded as fundamental to the well-being of society as a whole.
Given these values, it would have been unthinkable for Paul to sanction as church leaders those whose households belied their leadership skills. Society expected the householder to command the respect of his wife, children and slaves. To expect less from church leaders would have been to risk associating the church with charges of social disruption and political subversion. However, this particular condition was not meant to exclude the unmarried from holding positions of leadership in the church; in that day marriage was the almost universal rule.
Second, the overseer must not be a new believer (v. 6). The reason is not lack of leadership potential but lack of spiritual maturity. The new believer is more likely to see such a position of leadership as an opportunity for personal advancement and to fail to understand the gravity of the task. The sense in this condition is well illustrated in the modern church, which has seen many recent converts who, because of influential position or fame in the world, are thrust into positions of church leadership that they are hardly ready to fill.
The danger, as Paul describes it simply, is becoming conceited (or “filled with pride”) and falling under the devil’s judgment (v. 6). The latter may mean fall under the same judgment as the devil (NIV) or, as seems more in keeping with the next verse, “be condemned by the devil.” The point is that conceit, especially among church leaders, is just the kind of chink in the spiritual armor that the enemy often exploits. In Ephesus conceit was the bane of the false teachers (6:4; 2 Tim 3:4), who may well have been immature overseers. Their quick rise to this level of authority could easily have led them to think more highly of themselves (compare Rom 12:3) and their teaching than they ought, hardened them in stubbornness and caused no end of arguments in the church. Conceit and cooperation have nothing in common. Unfortunately, when the enemy discovers this breach in defense and a church leader falls into sin, the testimony of the church falls as well.
The final condition states clearly what has already been implied: the overseer must have a good testimony before outsiders (v. 7). Here the list of requirements concludes by returning to the general thought of “irreproachability” (3:2), but now with a particular audience, unbelievers, in mind. The good testimony is to be measured according to the preceding kinds of qualities. Deficiencies in the overseer’s reputation or behavior that damage the testimony open the leader up to disgrace from outsiders–that is, the devil’s trap. Perhaps in Paul’s mind the greater danger lies in the fact that a fallen leader brings disgrace on the church and its message from those it is meant to reach (3:15).
To put the overseer code into proper perspective, the importance and urgency of the church’s evangelistic mission require that its leaders be of the highest caliber (2:1-2; 3:14-15). They must be leaders whose management skill and purity of lifestyle instill confidence in Christians and elicit respect from outsiders to the faith. But the emphasis in this code is often missed. “Irreproachability” does not mean perfection. If Paul meant “without defect” or “in no need of growth,” no one would qualify. Rather, as the range of qualities suggests, the code stresses “wholeness” as a measure of development toward maturity. That is, Paul wanted in leadership positions those in whom the Spirit was evidently and actively at work (but not necessarily finished) in the whole of life. Although realistically life is far too complex for anyone to be able to say at any one moment, “The Spirit is now renewing every part of my life” (who could stand the strain, anyway?), still from one’s demeanor and attitudes and from evidence that the renovation is already under way, this kind of thoroughgoing commitment to God is possible to see.
As a guide to spiritual maturity, this code is applicable to all believers. It may serve as a map to chart for us a course to those areas in our life that need attention, while along the way we can receive encouragement at the signs of progress already made. And if we lose our way, the map can get us back on the right road. A thoughtful look at this map from time to time will keep our attention on thorough and balanced growth in Christ, with no area of our life escaping notice.Deacons: A Blameless Reputation (3:8-13)
Candidates for the office of deacon come under the same careful scrutiny. The qualifications they are to meet are closely similar to the overseer’s. As verse 10 indicates, “blamelessness” (the practical equivalent of above reproach in v. 2; compare Tit 1:6-7) represents the acceptable standard (the NIV there is nothing against them obscures this point). Verses 8 and 9 explain what is meant by “blameless,” and again the concern for wholeness of development emerges. The qualities listed in verse 8 fall into familiar categories of observable conduct. Worthy of respect (or “serious”–2:2; Tit 2:2) implies a bearing or deportment that is obviously respectable. Following closely on this is sincere, the positive rendering of the literal negative “not double-tongued” (or “two-faced”). That is, the deacon’s word must be reliable. The deacon must also have control over drinking and not be allured by dishonest gain. Plainly, the same kinds of qualities expected of the overseer are to be apparent in the deacon.
Paul next (v. 9) inserts what appears to be a “spiritual” requirement–namely, that the deacon keep hold of the deep truths of the faith with a clear conscience (compare 1:19). He means they must prove themselves to be unconnected with the false teachers. The latter, whose consciences were seared (4:2), rejected the faith and destroyed their spiritual lives (1:19). Very likely some had been deacons in the church. In Paul’s thinking the clear conscience is the organ of decision. With it one can cross the distance from the faith, embraced with mind and heart, to godly conduct. Adherence to correct doctrine is also a matter of decision and, above all for the church leader, an aspect of godly conduct.
According to the criteria laid down in verses 8 and 9 (and also v. 12), the candidate’s fitness to serve is to be tested. Both the term “blameless” (NIV nothing against them) and the notion of testing imply the public dimension of the candidate’s life. The deacon’s reputation among believers and unbelievers must be demonstrably acceptable.
Qualities enumerated in verses 11-12 clarify the meaning of “blamelessness” still further. However, at verse 11 a new sentence begins, and Paul issues instructions that refer to either the wives of deacons (so NIV) or women deacons (“deaconesses”; NIV margin). It is difficult to be certain which meaning Paul intended. Those who favor the meaning wives point out that requirements concerning the women are surrounded by those related to deacons. Furthermore, “women” is too common a term to designate an office. In defense of the meaning “deaconesses” others explain that (1) the introductory phrase in the same way (NIV; one word in the original; see likewise, 3:8), which is characteristic of exhortation to distinct groups, (2) the exact replication of verse 8’s sentence structure in verse 11 and (3) the dependence of each verse on the initial must verb of the passage, verse 2, make a reference to women deacons equally possible. The question remains open; but it is well to keep in mind that in the absence of a technical term (“deaconess”), a reference to “women” in a code listing requirements for the office of deacon would have sufficed to direct attention to those candidates who were in fact women (compare Rom 16:1).
The actual qualities expected of these women parallel those expected of men (vv. 8-9). They are to lead lives that command respect, no doubt because they speak prudently with control (NIV not malicious talkers), do not drink in excess and generally are trustworthy in all things (5:10). The patterns of behavior that characterize overseers and deacons are also to be obvious in the lives of these women. Furthermore, as in the case of the deacons, these women represent the antithesis of certain other women who had come under the influence of the false teachers (5:15; compare 2 Tim 3:6-7).
A final word reminds deacons of responsibilities toward wife and family (3:12). Like the overseer, the deacon must be a faithful husband. He must also have proved himself a capable manager of his household. As we saw, this was a quality greatly admired in (and also expected of) the householder by that society. If the householder clearly lacked this ability he was quickly criticized. Paul’s point is again that one who would lead in the church must first know how to lead in the family in a way that promotes harmony among its members and loyalty to its leader. It is a safe assumption that one who manages his home haphazardly, whether he is a heavy-handed tyrant and slow to listen or simply irresponsible and unconcerned for his family, is likely to leave a similar stamp on the church. To be a leader requires having leadership skills that are tried and tested in the most practical of situations, the home.
Verse 13 concludes the list of requirements for office with an encouragement to those who serve well. It parallels the “faithful saying” that heads the list (see on 3:1) and is probably similar in purpose. The apostasy of some elders and deacons in Ephesus almost certainly lowered opinions about leaders and leadership in the church and in the minds of outsiders. So confidence in the office and in the people filling that office needed to be restored. Today this same confidence needs to be maintained. Thus Paul reminds us that deacons who serve well will receive a twofold reward. Among people faithful deacons will gain an excellent standing, a good reputation. They will also grow closer to Christ in faith and assurance.
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|Jewish honorifics and titles|
|Rabbi||Literally means ‘great one’. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root word רַב, rav, which in biblical Hebrew means ‘great’ or ‘distinguished (in knowledge)’.|
|Av Beit Din|
|Cantor||This title has a different meaning in Reform Judaism.|
|The Mitzvah of sanctifying the Kohen|
|Cantorate||This position had a different meaning to the Reform Jewish in the 19th Century.|
|The status quo Kohen|
|Admo”r||“Admor” is an acronym for “Adonainu, Morainu, VeRabbeinu,” a phrase meaning “Our Master, Our Teacher, and Our Rebbe.” This is an honorific title given to scholarly leaders of a Jewish community. In writing, this title is placed before the name, as in “Admor of Pinsk” or “R’ (stands for Rabbi, Rav,or Reb) Ploni Almoni, Admor of Redomsk.”|
|Shlit”a||‘Shlit”a’ is an acronym for “Sheyikhye Lirot Yamim Tovim Arukim/Amen,” “May he live a good long life” or “May he live a good life, Amen,” given to a revered rabbi or to someone’s child’s Rebbe (teacher). This title is usually placed before the name.|
|K’vod K’dushat||“K’vod K’dushat,” meaning “The honor of [his] holiness”. This title is usually placed before the name. It is found as early as in the 1531 edition of The Aruk.|
|Shy’||“Shy'” is an acronym for “Sheyikhye,” meaning “May he live”. This title is usually placed after the name.|
|Protestant Christian honorifics and titles|
|Preacher||Some churches in the United States|
|Bishop||See also Bishop (Catholic Church)|
|Resident Bishop||This title is exclusive to the United Methodist Church.|
Latter Day Saints
|Latter Day Saints honorifics and titles|
|President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles (or Acting President)||“President [surname]”|
|Bishop||“Bishop [surname]” (the title is often retained as a courtesy after the individual is released from the calling)|
|Counselors in a Bishopric||“Brother [surname]”|
|Presiding Bishop and counselors in the Presiding Bishopric||“Bishop [surname]” (the title is often retained as a courtesy after the individual is released from the calling)|
|Branch president||“President [surname]”|
|Counselors in a branch presidency||“Brother [surname]”|
|District President and counselors in a district presidency||“President [surname]”|
|Elder||“Brother [surname]” (except for full-time missionaries, in which case it is “Elder [surname]”)|
|High priest||“Brother [surname]” (except for full-time missionaries, in which case it is “Elder [surname]”)|
|Full-time missionaries (female)||“Sister [surname]”|
|Full-time missionaries (male)||“Elder [surname]”|
|Mission president||“President [surname]”|
|Counselors in a mission presidency||“President [surname]”|
|Patriarch||“Brother [surname]” or “Patriarch [surname]”|
|President of the Church and counselors in the First Presidency||“President [surname]”|
|Local and general Relief Society, Young Women, and Primary presidents and their counselors||“Sister [surname]”|
|Local and general Sunday School presidents and counselors in Sunday School presidencies||“Brother [surname]”|
|Stake President and counselors in a stake presidency||“President [surname]”|
|Temple president||“President [surname]”|
|Counselors in a temple presidency||“Brother [surname]”|
|Local and general Young Men presidents and counselors in Young Men presidencies||“Brother [surname]”|
|Buddhist honorifics and titles|
|Lama||The teachers of Dharma in Tibet.|
|Third Bardor Tulku Rinpoche|
|Tulku||In Tibetan Buddhism, a Lama who has through phowa and siddhi consciously determined to be reborn, often many times, in order to continue their Bodhisattva vow.|
|Agga Maha Pandita|
|Upāsaka and Upāsikā|
|Hinduism honorifics and titles|
|Godman||The Godman is a Hindu ascetic|
|Guru||Originally referring in Sanskrit to Brihaspati, a Hindu divine figure, today the term is commonly used in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism, as well as in many new religious movements.|
|Swami||An ascetic or yogi who has been initiated into the religious monastic order founded by Adi Sankara, or to a religious teacher. When used as a prefix with a monastic name, “Swami” usually refers to men who have taken the oath of renunciation and abandoned their social status. The monastic name is usually a single word without a first and last name.|
|Islamic honorifics and titles|
|Alayhi ‘l-salat wa’l-Salam||Means “Upon him prayer and peace”; used for all earlier Prophets and Angels.|
|Alayhi wa ‘ala Alihi al-salat wa ‘l-Salam||Means “Upon him and his family be prayer and peace”|
|Salawat Allahi ‘alayhi wa Alihi||Means “The exaltations of God shall be upon him and his family”|
|Salawat Allah wa Salamuhu ‘Alayhi wa Alihi||Means “The exaltations and peace of God be upon him and his family”|
|Salla ‘llah ‘Alayhi wa Alihi wa Sahbihi wa sallam||Means, “May God exalt and bring peace upon him, his family, and his companions”|
|Salla ‘llah ‘alayhi wa Alihi wa sallam||Means, “May God exalt and bring peace upon him and his progeny”|
|Radiya Allaho ‘anho||Means “May God be pleased with him”; Used for companions of prophet as well as scholars|
|Allamah||A Sunni Islam term meaning the most respected of the Marjas; it is a Persian name for teacher that is also used by some to denote a teacher of extraordinary respect.|
|Ayatollah||In Shi’a Islam, a high ranking title given to clerics.|
|Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques|
|Imam||In Shi’a Islam, the Imam is appointed by God, and Muhammed was informed that the number of Imams after him will be 12.|
|Khoja||A Turkestani word|
|Mahdi||The 12th Imam will come either as a first time appearance or as a reappearance after a long occultation. The Mahdi is the greatest teacher, the Messiah of the Islamic World, and the Maitreya of Buddhism.|
|Marabout||A spiritual teacher of Islam as it is taught in the West Africa and Maghreb, The word comes from the Berber concept of Saint. The “marabout” is known as “Sayyed” (سيد) to the Arabic speaking Maghribians.|
|Marja||In Shi’a Islam, The name means source to follow.|
|Mawlawi||A Persian word for teacher meaning Master.|
|Mufti||A guide on the Path to the Source of living Water (the divine sharia law) is called Mufti.|
|Muhaddith||Someone who has profound knowledge of the Haddith, and teaches by Narration, or storytelling.|
|Mullah||The title of the teachers at the Madrasahs, Islamic schools. Mullah is a teacher in regard of being respected as a vicar and guardian of Qur’an and the Islamic traditions.|
|Mujaddid||Someone sent by God to aid the Umma and revive Islam at the beginning of every century .|
|Peace be upon him|
|Sheikh||An Arabic honorific term that literally means Elder. It is a long historic debate in many cultures whether the elder in itself denotes the role and status of a teacher.|
|Subhanahu wa ta’ala|
|Ulema/Ulama||The title that indicates that the teacher has come to awareness of the consensus, the ijma, of the Umma. Umma is the universal community of all the children of God.|
|Roman Catholicism honorifics and titles|
|Catholicoi||The heads of some of the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and Eastern Rite Catholic sui iuris churches (notably the Armenian); roughly similar to a Patriarch.|
|Primate||A primate is usually the bishop of the oldest church of a nation. Sometimes this carries jurisdiction over metropolitan bishops, but usually it is purely honorific. The primate of the Scottish Episcopal Church is chosen from among the diocesan bishops, and, while retaining diocesan responsibility, is called Primus.|
|Presiding Bishop or President Bishop||These titles are often used for the head of a national Anglican church, but the title is not usually associated with a particular episcopal see like the title of a primate.|
|Major archbishop||Major archbishops are the heads of some of the Eastern Catholic Churches. Their authority within their sui juris church is equal to that of a patriarch, but they receive fewer ceremonial honors.|
|Metropolitan bishop||A metropolitan bishop is an archbishop in charge of an ecclesiastical province, or group of dioceses, and in addition to having immediate jurisdiction over his own archdiocese, also exercises some oversight over the other dioceses within that province. Sometimes a metropolitan may also be the head of an autocephalous, sui iuris, or autonomous church when the number of adherents of that tradition are small. In the Latin Rite, metropolitans are always archbishops; in many Eastern churches, the title is “metropolitan,” with some of these churches using “archbishop” as a separate office.|
|Archbishop||An archbishop is the bishop of an archdiocese. This is usually a prestigious diocese with an important place in local church history. In the Roman Catholic Church, the title is purely honorific and carries no extra jurisdiction, though most archbishops are also metropolitan bishops, as above. In most provinces of the Anglican Communion, however, an archbishop has metropolitical and primatial power.|
|Suffragan bishop||A suffragan bishop is a bishop subordinate to a Metropolitan. In the Roman Catholic Church this term is applied to all non-metropolitan bishops (that is, diocesan bishops of dioceses within a metropolitan’s province, and auxiliary bishops). In the Anglican Communion, the term applies to a bishop who is a full-time assistant to a diocesan bishop: the Bishop of Warwick is suffragan to the Bishop of Coventry (the diocesan), though both live in Coventry. Some Anglican suffragans are given the responsibility for a geographical area within the diocese (for example, the Bishop of Stepney is an area bishop within the Diocese of London).|
|Titular bishop||A titular bishop is a bishop without a diocese. Rather, the bishop is head of a titular see, which is usually an ancient city that used to have a bishop, but, for some reason or other, does not have one now. Titular bishops often serve as auxiliary bishops. In the Ecumenical Patriarchate, bishops of modern dioceses are often given a titular see alongside their modern one (for example, the Archbishop of Thyateira and Great Britain).|
|Auxiliary bishop||An auxiliary bishop is a full-time assistant to a diocesan bishop (the Orthodox and Catholic equivalent of an Anglican suffragan bishop). An auxiliary bishop is a titular bishop, and he is to be appointed as a vicar general or at least as an episcopal vicar of the diocese in which he serves.|
|Coadjutor bishop||A coadjutor bishop is an auxiliary bishop who is given almost equal authority in a diocese with the diocesan bishop, and the automatic right to succeed the incumbent diocesan bishop. The appointment of coadjutors is often seen as a means of providing for continuity of church leadership.|
|Honorary Assistant bishop, Assisting Bishop, or Bishop Emeritus||These titles are usually applied to retired bishops who are given a general licence to minister as episcopal pastors under a diocesan’s oversight. The titles, in this meaning, are not used by the Roman Catholic Church.|
|Chorbishop||A chorbishop is an official of a diocese in some Eastern Christian churches. Chorbishops are not generally ordained bishops – they are not given the sacrament of Holy Orders in that degree – but function as assistants to the diocesan bishop with certain honorary privileges.|
|Prince-Bishop||Also called Prince of the Church|
Roman Catholicism in the United States
|Roman Catholics in the United States honorifics and titles|
|Cardinal||Referred to as His Eminence; Your Eminence|
|Cardinal who is also an archbishop||His Eminence; Your Eminence|
|Archbishop||Referred to as The Most Reverend; His Excellency; Your Excellency.|
|Bishop||Referred to as The Most Reverend; His Excellency; Your Excellency.|
|Abbot||Referred to as The Right Reverend; Father Abbot, others depending on personal and abbey custom.|
|Protonotary Apostolic, Honorary Prelate, Chaplain of His Holiness||Referred to as The Reverend Monsignor. Postnominals are rarely used for Honorary Prelates or Chaplains of His Holiness.|
|Vicar General||Referred to as The Very Reverend or The Reverend.|
|Judicial Vicar, Ecclesiastical Judge, Episcopal Vicar, Vicar Forane, Dean, Provincial Superior, Rector||Referred to as The Very Reverend or Father.|
|Canon||Referred to as The Very Reverend Canon|
|Prior||Referred to as The Very Reverend or Father.|
|Pastor of a Catholic parish, Parochial Vicar, Chaplain, Priest||Referred to as The Reverend or Father.|
|Transitional Deacon||Referred to as Reverend Mister or Deacon.|
|Permanent Deacon||Referred to as Mister or Deacon.|
|Seminarian||Referred to as Mister.|
|Religious Brother||Referred to as Brother.|
|Abbess, Prioress, superior of a religious order of women or a province||Referred to as Reverend Mother or Sister|
|Nun or Religious Sister||Referred to as Sister.|
|Eastern Orthodox honorifics and titles|
|Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople||Ecumenical Patriarch [insert name], His All-Holiness, Your All-Holiness.|
|Patriarch||Patriarch [insert name] of [place], Patriarch, His Beatitude, Your Beatitude.|
|Archbishop of an independent Church||The Most Reverend Archbishop [insert name] of [place], Archbishop John, His Beatitude, Your Beatitude.|
|Archbishop of a sub-national Church||The Most Reverend Archbishop [insert name] of [place], Archbishop John, His Eminence, Your Eminence.|
|Metropolitan||The Most Reverend Metropolitan [insert name] of [place], Metropolitan John, His Eminence, Your Eminence.|
|Titular Metropolitan||The Most Reverend Metropolitan [insert name] of [place], His Excellency, Your Excellency. Some Metropolitans use the style “The Very Most Reverend”, and a Metropolitan who is the head of an independent Church is addressed as “Beatitude” rather than “Excellency”.|
|Bishop||The Right Reverend Bishop [insert name] of [place], Bishop [insert name], His Grace, Your Grace.|
|Titular/Auxiliary Bishop||Same as for Bishops, above, and in other languages Sayedna (Arabic), Despota (Greek), Vladika (Russian).|
|Priest (Presbyter)||The Reverend Father or Father.|
|Protopriest||The Very Reverend Protopriest or Father.|
|Archpriest||The Very Reverend Archpriest [insert name] or Father.|
|Archimandrite||The Very Reverend Archimandrite [insert name], or The Right Reverend Archimandrite, or Father.|
|Hieromonk (Priest-monk)||The Reverend Hieromonk or Father. In other languages Abouna (Arabic), Pappas (Greek), Batushka (Russian)|
|Priest’s Wife||Presbytera Mary (Greek), Khouria Mary (Arabic), Matushka Mary (Russian), Papadiya Mary (Serbian), Panimatushka (Ukrainian)|
|Deacon||The Reverend Father [insert name], Deacon [insert name], Father [insert name], Deacon Father [insert name], Deacon [insert name]|
|Protodeacon||The Reverend Protodeacon [insert name], Father [insert name], Deacon Father [insert name], Deacon [insert name]|
|Archdeacon||The Reverend Archdeacon [insert name], Father [insert name], Deacon Father [insert name], Deacon [insert name].|
|Hierodeacon (Deacon-monk)||The Reverend Hierodeacon [insert name], Father [insert name]|
|Deacon’s Wife||Diakonissa Mary (Greek), or the same titles as a priest’s wife|
|Abbot||The Right Reverend Abbot [insert name], Abbot [insert name], Father [insert name]|
|Abbess||The Reverend Mother Superior [insert name], The Very Reverend Abbess [insert name], Reverend Mother [insert name], Mother [insert name]|
|Monk||Monk [insert name], Father [insert name]|
|Rassophore Monk||Rassophore Monk [insert name], Father [insert name]|
|Stavrophore Monk||Stavrophore Monk [insert name], Father [insert name]|
|Schemamonk||Schemamonk [insert name], Father [insert name]|
|Novice||Novice [insert name]; or Brother [insert name]. The title “Brother” is a result of Latin influence; the title is only given to some novices with a special blessing.|
|Nun||Nun [insert name], Mother [insert name]|
|Rassophore Nun||Rassophore Nun [insert name], Sister [insert name]|
|Novice||Sister [insert name]|
|Pagan honorifics and titles|
|Religious Science Practitioner||“A trained counselor who listens to concerns and offers loving prayers in accordance to the principles of Science of Mind. Practitioners honor each person from a holistic viewpoint and acknowledge their basic loving nature.”|
|Pagan honorifics and titles|
|Volkhvy||Heathen priests among the pre-Christian Rus’ people.|
|High Priest/High Priestess||A Wiccan role.|
|Serer honorifics and titles|
|Lamane||“Master of the land”. Ancient lamanic class of the Serer people. Guardians of Serer religion, laws and ethics. Extinct (see States headed by ancient Serer Lamanes).|
|Saltigue||“Ministers of the religious cult”. The Serer priestly class.|
In Hinduism the spiritual teacher is known as a guru. Traditionally, a spiritual seeker would revere his or her guru highly, and demonstrate utmost submission and humility through menial service in order to prove worthy to be a recipient of the knowledge the guru has attained by initiation practices. There are many sayings on the teacher like “Guru devo bhava” (Guru is God), which reflects of the esteem associated with a guru’s role.
In the Latter Day Saint movement the teacher is an office in the Aaronic priesthood, while in Tibetan Buddhism the teachers of Dharma in Tibet are most commonly called a Lama. A Lama who has through phowa and siddhi consciously determined to be reborn, often many times, in order to continue their Bodhisattva vow is called a Tulku.
Clergy is the generic term for formal religious leadership within a given religion. A clergyman, churchman, or cleric is a member of the clergy. They may be called priest, preacher, pastor, minister, reverend, or father. In Christianity there is a wide range of formal and informal clergy positions, including deacons, priests, bishops, and ministers. In Shiaa Islam, religious leaders are usually known as imams or ayatollahs.
There are many kinds of people who deal with magic. They include paranormal magicians, fantasy magicians, shamans, kalku, and the magi. In Shamanic magic, the Seid plays a role, as does the Warlock and Witch in Paganism. In history, magic in the Greco-Roman world was common. There are also the Onmyou Mystic and the Bomoh.
- ^ http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=42537&st=&pgnum=2 (Hebrew)
- ^ Merriam-Webster’s Encyclopedia of Religion, page 958.
- ^ Ebenezer Cobham Brewer (2009). Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Chambers Harrap Publishers. ISBN 978-0-550-10411-3.
- ^ “Canon 406″. Code of Canon Law. The Holy See. 1983. Retrieved 2009-06-15.
- ^ http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01137a.htm
- ^ Vorensky, J. and Carr, K. (2001) I Dare to Heal: With Compassionate Love. Life’s Breath Publications and Xlibris. p 155.
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